People and Equipment used in Production and Post Production Audio (1)

The Music Telegraph | Text 2019/07/18 [15:12]

People and Equipment used in Production and Post Production Audio (1)

The Music Telegraph| 입력 : 2019/07/18 [15:12]


People and Equipment used in Production and Post Production Audio (1)



Production Audio

'Production Audio' refers to all the sounds recorded on set or on location during filming. It is the work of the Production Sound Crew which includes Production Sound Mixers, Boom Operators, and Sound Assistants. Although film is considered a primarily visual medium, much of thestorytelling and emotional resonance of a script is conveyed through dialogue.


Ensuring that the dialogue recorded during film shoots is suitably clear is a complex job; most film sets are challenging for the Sound Department as there are often unwanted noises to deal with, or the desired camera shots hamper the placing of microphones.


Although it is sometimes easier to re-record dialogue after the shoot (ADR), most actors and directors prefer to use the sound captured on set or location. Production Sound Crews also record backgrounds and room tones on set or on location to assist the Post Production Sound department during the editing process.



(1) Production Sound Mixer: is the person in charge of the production recording. They are usually positioned off set and record the sound captured by microphones onto a 'Nagra', 'DAT' or increasingly, onto hard disk recorders. The production sound mixer is also responsible for creating a 'production sound log'.


- Nagra:

A Swiss brand of professional recorder originally designed to record on-location synchronous sound for motion pictures, the industry standard for thirty years, owing to the quality and ruggedness of the recorders. It uses 1/4 inch tape and is generally equipped with a crystal sync generator. Nagras are portable, designed for used while being carried, and are equal in quality to high-end studio recorders. Nagra makes both digital and analog recorders, mono and stereo; use of a stereo Nagra on-location is almost always to record two separate mono tracks simultaneously, and does not usually mean a stereophonic recording. The Nagra-D is The digitalversion of the Nagra recorder which is able to record up to four tracks of 20-bit audio



▲ Nagra D

© Nagra Audio



- DAT Recorder:

(Digital Audio Tape) a more generic portable device used to record digital audio


▲ DA-P1 DAT Recorder

© Tascam


- Sonosax:

A portable mixing console often used by the production sound mixer


▲ SX62R

© Sonosax

- Production Sound log:

Written notes in pre-described form, recording the content of each production sound tape. Usually included are scene and take numbers, plus any other information about the recording session that is needed for proper location and playback



▲ Sound Log Sheet

© James Sargisson

(2) Boom Operators: are responsible for positioning various microphones so that the best possible quality sound is captured, and for ensuring that the boom microphone is not in shot.


- Shotgun Mic: a type of condenser mic which is designed to pick up sounds from a distance


▲ AT897

© Audio Technica

- PZM Mic: a small, sensitive condenser mic which can be hidden on set



▲ PZM30D

© PZM (Pressure Zone) microphone


- Wireless Clip-On Mic: sometimes used because they can be hidden on the actors clothing



▲ Wireless Clip-On Microphone

© Kongin

- Boom Pole: a lightweight pole designed to be held by a boom operator and used to position a microphone over actors heads



▲ Boom Pole series 2

© Gitzo


The sound and dialogue recorded during production are the raw materials used by the Post Production Sound department to help create the sonic identity of each film.







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