Components of synthesizer (3)

The Music Telegraph | Text 2019/02/26 [12:54]

Components of synthesizer (3)

The Music Telegraph| 입력 : 2019/02/26 [12:54]



Components of synthesizer (3) 


Components of synthesizer:

1. Hardware (e.g. keyboard, sound module, ..)

2. Synthesis Engine (e.g. oscillator, sound chip, ..)

3. Controller (e.g. pitch wheel, modulation wheel, ..)

4. Storage Device (e.g. usb, memory card, ..)

5. Additional Sequencer (e.g. built-in sequencer (workstation))



3. Controller

The controller is a tool for changing the sound of the synthesizer, which is used to transform the tone or to perform musical techniques by player. The controller has a pedal-like shape and some are built in synthesizer like LFOs. Synthesizer controller can be assigned to various locations in synthesizers and perform various functions, sometimes with multiple functions at once, and sometimes the controller controls other controllers. Here are major types of controllers in market:


I. Keyboard and Velocity

a) Keyboard

b) Velocity



II. Realtime Controller

a) Pitch Wheel

b) Modulation Wheel

c) Breath Controller

d) Keyboard Pressure (Aftertouch)

e) Low Frequency Oscillator (LFO)

f) Envelope Generator (EG)



III. Foot Switch

a) Damper Pedal (Sustain Pedal)

b) Soft Pedal

c) Sostenuto Pedal




1. Keyboard and Velocity


a) Keyboard:

Possible key numbers in Synthesizer keyboard (in MIDI data) --> 128

(Possible key numbers in acoustic piano --> 88)


b) Velocity:

Note-On ==> the speed at which you press the key

Note-Off ==> the speed at which the pressed key is released



2. Realtime Contoller


a) Pitch Wheel:

You can play many notes in a half-tone with Pitch wheel


b) Modulation Wheel:

Modulation Wheel can control various variables depending on what the user defines parameters


c) Breath Controller:

A controller that reproduces the sound of a wind instrument by blowing a controller in the mouth and making the desired data


d) Keyboard Pressure (Aftertouch):

The keyboard has a sensor that senses pressure, so you can create a specified modulation by applying force to the key once pressed


e) LFO

Create a very slow waveform below the audible frequency and use it as a modulation controller


f) EG

A controller that defines the modulation value as time progresses. EGs are usually assigned to pitches, volumes, and tones one by one




3. Foot Switch


a) Damper Pedal (Sustain Pedal)

Press --> Turn On the switch

Relsease --> Turn Off the switch


b) Soft Pedal

Works the same way that the piano does


c) Sostenuto Pedal

Sostentuo is a pedal that remembers the pressed key when you step on the pedal and keeps it even if you released the key



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